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Sonntag, 18. August 2019

Electromobility

© Kurt F. Domnik (Pixelio.de)

Even though electric and hybrid vehicles currently have a small share of total vehicle inventory its spread will increase within the coming years. Compared to cars with combustion engine the waste heat in electric vehicles is negligible. An electric vehicle therefore requires considerable amounts of energy, not only for cooling the inner space but also for heating. Heating and air-conditioning lead to further restriction of the already limited range.


Range reduction caused by air-conditioning systems using the example of an electric vehicle of the Golf class

Fig. 2, source: FAT 2011, S. 38

legend:

Komfort wird erreicht = comfort is achieved  |  Komfort wird nicht erreicht = comfort is not achieched
Energieverbrauch = energy consumption  |  Reichweite = range
Energieverbrauch für einen NEFZ = energy consumption for one NEDCAußentemperatur = ambient temperature 
 

The original range of 190 km of a vehicle of the Golf class decreases to 103 km (at 35 degrees Celsius ambient temperature). For cooling the interior, the car consumes almost as much energy as for driving.


Range reduction caused by heating using the example of an electric vehicle of the Golf class

Fig. 3, source: FAT 2011, S. 39

For heating, a high level of energy is needed as well. At 0 degrees Celsius outside temperature the range already decreases to less than 110 km.


Measures to improve the range

Fig. 4, source: FAT 2011, S. 60

Cooling: By improving the body insulation, increased use of circulating air and preconditioning of the vehicle, even at a temperature of 35 degrees a range of over 160 km is available.

Fig. 5, source: FAT 2011, S. 59

Heating: Here again, a package of measures consisting body isolation, circulating air, preheating and the use of a heat pump helps to ensure a range of approximately 170 km even at very low temperatures. With the natural refrigerant CO2 in particular, very efficient heating and cooling systems with heat pump function can be constructed. The chemical refrigerants R134a and R1234yf are not suitable for this purpose.


source Fig. 2-5: FAT - Schriftenreihe 233 - Spezifische Anforderungen an das Heiz-Klimasystem elektromotorisch angetriebener Fahrzeuge (2011).